Actions for the development of sitting volleyball as a community

Revista PODIUM, January-April 2019; 14(1): 56-70

 

Translated from the original in spanish

 

Actions for the development of sitting volleyball as a community recreational alternative

 

Acciones para el desarrollo del voleibol sentado como alternativa recreativa comunitaria

 

Humberto Durañona Nápoles1, Eddy Alejandro Blet Peña1, Yadira Rives Fernández1, Daril Domínguez Núñez1

1Universidad Isla de la Juventud. Facultad de Cultura Física. E-mail: hduranona@uij.edu.cu ; yrives@cuij.edu.cu

 

Received: November 11th, 2018.
Accepted: January 11th, 2019.


ABSTRACT

The work entitled "Actions for the development of sitting volleyball as a community recreational alternative"; had the objective to design a plan of actions for the development of sitting volleyball as a recreational community alternative in La Isla de la Juventud, with the purpose of offering the population, mainly young people, a new healthy form of entertainment, physical preparation, health and leisure; taking into consideration the physical, cultural and social spaces with an appropriate use of free time. During its development there were used theoretical research methods (historical-logical, analysis-synthesis, inductive-deductive and documentary); empirical methods (scientific observation, survey, interviews), as well as the SWOT matrix (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) as a method of strategic definition in the conformation of actions. All these allowed to face the different research situations that were presented during the entire period of information search, data collection, selection and preparation of the action plan for the development of sitting volleyball as a community recreational alternative. From a population of 199 individuals, a sample of 62 was taken; what represented 31.15% of it. It consisted of 57 young people between 16-25 years old (23 men and 34 women), 3 members of the Popular Council (2 men and 1 women) and 2 technicians and activists (both male) from "José Martí" community in La Isla de la Juventud. The results obtained in the structuring and planning of community recreational activities and in the inclusion of sitting volleyball as a recreational alternative in community programs allowed concluding that the proposed actions will contribute to the development of sitting volleyball as a recreational alternative and therefore; a better quality of life in the community.

Keywords: actions; sitting volleyball; recreational alternative; community.


RESUMEN

El trabajo titulado «Acciones para el desarrollo del voleibol sentado como alternativa recreativa comunitaria» tuvo como objetivo elaborar un plan de acciones para el desarrollo del voleibol sentado, como alternativa recreativa comunitaria en la Isla de la Juventud, con el propósito de ofertar a la población fundamentalmente joven de una nueva forma sana de diversión, preparación física, salud y ocio; tomando en consideración los espacios físicos, culturales y sociales con un uso adecuado del tiempo libre. Durante el desarrollo del mismo se emplearon los métodos de investigación teóricos (histórico lógico, análisis síntesis, inductivo-deductivo y documental) y empíricos (observación científica, encuesta, entrevistas), así como el empleo de la matriz DAFO (Debilidades, Amenazas, Fortalezas y Oportunidades) como método de definición estratégica en la conformación de las acciones. Todo esto permitió enfrentar las diferentes situaciones investigativas que se presentaron durante todo el período de búsqueda de información, recopilación de datos, selección y elaboración del plan de acciones para el desarrollo del voleibol sentado como alternativa recreativa comunitaria. De una población de 199 sujetos, se tomó una muestra de 62, lo que representó el 31,15% de la misma. Estuvo compuesta por 57 jóvenes entre 16-25 años (23 masculinos y 34 féminas), 3 miembros del Consejo Popular (2 masculinos y 1 femenina) y 2 técnicos o activistas (ambos masculinos) de la comunidad «José Martí» en la Isla de la Juventud. Los resultados obtenidos en la estructuración y planificación de actividades recreativas comunitarias y en la inclusión del voleibol sentado, como alternativa recreativa en los programas comunitarios, permitieron concluir que las acciones propuestas contribuirán al desarrollo del voleibol sentado, como alternativa recreativa; por ende, una mejor calidad de vida en la comunidad.

Palabras clave: acciones; Voleibol sentado; Alternativa recreativa; Comunidad.


INTRODUCTION

Volleyball (initially under the name mintonette) was born on February 9, 1895 in the United States, in Holyoke, Massachusetts. Its inventor was William George Morgan, a Physical Education teacher at the Young Master Christians Association (YMCA). Its foundation is in passing the ball (initially designed in leather) over a net. Its first rules appeared in 1896. (Cuba).
Volleyball is a team sport that takes place in a field with two different parts and which logic is cyclic in attack and defense phases, one team tries to get the ball to contact the opposite field and the other tries to avoid it.

It has an important socializing component, playing as a team. Castro González, (2010). It adapts perfectly to the different needs of the participants, addresses all areas of society through the large modalities, with the same internal logic:

The different modalities are: Castro González, (2010).

Sitting volleyball was created because of the great need for sport for people with reduced mobility, especially after World War II, which provoked that many people in Central and Eastern Europe to be seriously injured.

Internationally, seated volleyball is governed by the International Sports Federation for the Disabled (ISOD). It is a variant of traditional volleyball, as beach volleyball is, however, this variant is specially adapted to be played by athletes with reduced mobility.

In 1956, the first known seated volleyball competition was held in Holland; the height of the net, which was originally placed at a height of two metres (2 metres), and the size of the court was adapted. International Federation of Sports for the Disabled (2015).

In the 1970s, in the 20th century, the first official international competitions were held, International Federation of Sports for the Disabled (2015). In 1978, seated volleyball was accepted as a sport for the disabled by the International Sports Federation for the Disabled (ISOD), International Federation of Sports for the Disabled (2015).

In the 1980s, seated volleyball became an official Paralympic sport (International Federation of Sports for the Disabled, 2015), debuting at the 1980 Amhem Paralympic Games.

It is currently one of the most practiced sports by disabled athletes, and has become one of the favorites of recent editions of the Paralympics, being the event, where more spectators go to. Paradeportes, (2017).

In Cuba, on December 9, 1975, the United Nations proclaimed the Declaration of the Rights of the Disabled (paradeportes, 2017), bearing in mind the need to prevent physical and mental disability, to help the disabled develop their aptitudes in the various spheres of life, as well as to encourage as far as possible their incorporation into different social activities; at the beginning of 1977, the systematic practice of sports for the disabled began in our country. In 1977, the Cuban Federation of Motor Physically Handicapped was created; (ecured, 2016), later, on March 14, 1980, the Cuban Association of Motor Physically Handicapped was formalized through Resolution number 42 of the Ministry of Justice.

In Cuba, the practice of seated volleyball began in 2004 (male sex), and the 1st National Qualifying Championship was held in the province of Granma.

Competitive results

Since 2009, the Cup "Ramon Navarro" is held in the province of Cienfuegos, where the team of Cienfuegos (male) has won all editions to date.

In 2014, several Friendly Games were held with Colombia, Costa Rica and Mexico teams, in the male branch. The Cuba team played all matches without losing a set, highlighting that the province participated with four athletes in the regular team.

In 2015, the zonal event was held in Nuevitas, Camagüey, with the participation of 5 seated volleyball teams, where the Cienfuegos team won 1st place, Camagüey 2nd place and Ciego de Ávila 3rd place.

Parapan American Games

Results 2016-2017

In 2016, the "Ramón Navarro" Cup in memory was held in Cienfuegos, with the participation of 5 volleyball teams seated with the following results:

In 2017, the "Ramón Navarro" Cup in memory was held in Cienfuegos, with the participation of four teams with the following results:

In November 2017, the National Championship is held in Havana, where four athletes from the Cienfuegos team participate and three athletes from the Matanzas team join, with the following results:

In Cuba, the management program for the four-year period 2017-2020, in its functional area of Physical Recreation, aims to increase the offers and options for the systematic practice of physical-sports and recreational activities, counting as scenarios the educational institutions, work centers and the community, an issue that motivated us to search for recreational alternatives that can be developed in the communities.

Hence, sports for the disabled has undergone a systematic improvement within the program developed by the National Institute of Sports, Physical Education and Recreation (INDER). In this sense, when the person, child or adult, is diagnosed and receives the corresponding medical attention, it is observed that, from certain moments onwards, different systems and special needs interact, which, although initially they were assisted in the hospital, go on to receive Physical Education and Health Promotion services in the therapeutic area and the community gymnasium; they can also be integrated into the practice of sport systematically and, if they demonstrate conditions at an appropriate age, are considered potential talents who can participate in provincial and national events, including National Paralympics, and can represent the country and, perhaps, become Paralympic World Champion.

It is important to emphasize that the special sports practice must reach all the population that wants it, without exclusions. Adapted sport offers the possibility of access to this right to people who, under normal sporting conditions, could not, allowing them to engage in physical and sporting activity, both in the recreational field and in the competitive field. These people must adapt to the real conditions of each sport, which will allow them to develop more harmoniously and fluently in terms of the game as it is a sports specialty that uses different means to be practiced by different athletes. On the other hand, it is a sporting activity that is susceptible of accepting modifications to enable the participation of people with physical, mental or sensory disabilities. (Instituto Nacional de Deportes Educación Física y Recreación. Inder, (2017).

Adapted sport pursues objectives, Chile, (2015), such as:

The adapted sport and the social insertion of the disabled, International Federation of Sports for the Disabled (2015), is nuanced among other questions by:

In order to apply adapted sport, its rules, the playing field and equipment to be used, among others, must be modified in order to adapt it to the special needs of disabled people who practice it.

Some practitioners require priority attention through therapeutic physical activity for the correction and compensation of injuries and the rehabilitation of diseases, in the prophylaxis of complications, and for the recovery of work capacity. This therapeutic care serves as a complement to the adapted sport that is carried out in the communities, by means of a personalized service of undoubted social value. International Federation of Sports for the Disabled, (2015) and Sanz Morales, (2014).

In La Isla de la Juventud, Crispin, (2018), the practice of seated volleyball as a sport begins on August 17, 2006, the first game took place on the court of Josué País school. Then the male and female teams were created, which participated in the national championship on November 27 of that same year, being among the top eight teams in the country, from there they participated in two more championships and did not do it again until 2016, continuing with their practice to date.

Also, in our municipality, the recreational activities are represented in all their manifestations; being priority those that promote a healthy recreation; among which we can mention the sport manifestations.

These are reflected in sports such as basketball, volleyball and soccer that are offered, with great acceptance in children and young people. However, other alternatives are not promoted which, in our opinion, with a minimum of resources, propitiate greater social benefit, participation and health.

Therefore, the authors, when analyzing the results of this experimental study, decide to propose in practice a group of actions and theoretical foundations, taking into account the current state, to contribute to the development of seated volleyball as a recreational alternative.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The research was carried out with a sample of 62 subjects: 57 young people between the ages of 16 and 25 (23 males and 34 females), three members of the Popular Council (two males and one female) and two technicians or activists (both male) from the "José Martí" community in La Isla de la Juventud.

In order to work on the conceptions of recreational activity and its particularities in community training, the following theoretical level methods were used:

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The results of the instruments applied in the research and then the relevant discussion will be shown below.

Objective: To obtain necessary information on the organizational and structural conditions for the development of recreational activities in the community.

Objective: To obtain the necessary information about recreational activities, being seated volleyball an important element as a community recreational alternative.

Objective: To obtain information about the knowledge of recreational offers; the potentialities and limitations for the development of recreational activities in the community.

Objective: To obtain information about the knowledge of the potentialities and limitations for the development of recreational activities in the community.

Objective: To establish the fundamental actions that contribute to the development of seated volleyball as a community recreational alternative.

Description of the SWOT matrix

Within the strategic direction of the Physical Recreation System it is prudent to cross the SWOT matrix as follows:

Graf. 1- Crossing of the SWOT matrix

From here, the corresponding strategies are established that allow the design the action plan for the development of seated volleyball as a community recreational alternative.

SO Strategy: Use of strengths to take advantage of opportunities.

ST Strategy: Use of strengths to avoid threats.

WO Strategy: Minimize weaknesses, taking advantage of opportunities.

Strategy WT: Minimize weaknesses to avoid threats.

This whole process took place over a nine-month period, from January 2017 to September 2017, as follows:

Table 1. - Results of the first observation (diagnosis). January/2017


When evaluating the results of the first observation, it was found that the five aspects analyzed as reflected in chart #1 are evaluated between regular (R) 80 % and bad (M) 20 %. (Table 1)
The preparation and structure of the recreational plan are considered to be evaluated as regular because, although the recreational plan is prepared, not all the recreational activities to be developed are structured (the design of the recreational festival and the activities of the street plan are lacking).

The availability of technical staff is evaluated as bad, because these human resources are only two activists or recreation technicians, who are the  least that must exist for the development of the activities.

The organizational structure is evaluated as regular, since the fundamental organizations are not represented: Popular power, Culture representatives, Communist Yuths Organization and INDER.
The availability of recreational areas is evaluated as regular, since there are certain areas (basketball field, baseball field and socio-cultural area) that are not suitable for the development of activities, especially cleaning and sanitation, painting and signage.

The availability of recreational aids is evaluated as regular, since some aids exist, but their condition is not adequate (basketball, volleyball and soccer balls without air and they do not have rustic means).

Results of the survey applied to youths

Table 2. - Preferred physical recreational activities (question #2)


In relation to the evaluation of question #2, the activities preferred by young people, it is observed that 43.8% prefer volleyball, 31.5 % baseball and 24.5 % football respectively. Therefore, the authors infer that as the highest percentage of preference is in volleyball, this offers the possibility of introducing the proposed alternative. (Table 2)

Table 3. - Recreational Offers (question #4)


As can be seen in the assessment of question #4, on recreational offers, 92.9% state that seated volleyball is not included among recreational offers, however, 3.5 % consider that it is and another 3.5 % sometimes. Therefore, as seated volleyball is not offered, it also influences the lack of  knowledge and practice of seated volleyball and therefore affects demand. (Table 3)

Table 4. - Recreational activities in leisure time (question #5)


Regarding question #5, related to the likes for the practice of seated volleyball in free time, 66.6 % answered affirmatively and 33.3 % negatively. Therefore, it is considered favorable for the development of it as a community recreational alternative. (See chart 4)

Results of the interview applied to the members of the Popular Council of the community.

Question #4. Availability of sports areas.

Question #4 on the availability of areas for the development of physical-recreational activities, 100% of the interviewees answered affirmatively, so there are sufficient physical spaces to develop these activities.

Question # 7. Possibility of building sports areas.

In the assessment by the members of the Popular Council of question # 7, regarding the possibility of building a multipurpose court for the development of seated volleyball as a recreational alternative, 100 % estimates that it is possible. Therefore, it can be inferred that there is a willingness and commitment for the construction of such a facility.

Table 5. - Construction material resources (question #8)


The 100 % of the members of the Popular Council of the community, in question # 8 considers that the necessary resources do not exist for the construction of the multipurpose court, since they depend on other factors and administrative decisions at the government level. (Table 5) Results of the interview applied to community recreation technicians and activists.

Question #1. Existence of recreational program.

In relation to the assessment of question #1, regarding the existence of a community recreation program, 100, (2) of the technicians and community activists anwered affirmatively, so there is consensus of its existence.

Question #7. Knowledge of seated volleyball.

Regarding question # 7, related to knowledge about seated volleyball, 100 % (2) answered affirmatively. Therefore, it is considered that this is favorable for the development of it as an alternative community recreation and, in turn, achieve greater systematization in the knowledge of the rules of the game.

Table 6.-  Constructive possibilities of a multipurpose court (question #8)

In the assessment by technicians and activists of question # 8, regarding the possibility of building a multipurpose court for the development of seated volleyball as a recreational alternative, 100 % (2) believe that it is possible. Although it is not representative, there is willingness and commitment for the construction of such a facility. (Table 6)

Question #9. Assessment of the proposed solution.

In relation to the proposed solution to this recreational alternative, community technicians/activists give three fundamental aspects that will contribute to the development of recreational activities: the need for greater intervention of community factors, greater support from the sports sector, especially in sports media, and greater participation of community inhabitants.

Table 7. - Results of the second observation (final phase). September/2017

B: Good R: Regular M: Bad

During the evaluation of the second observation, it was found that there was improvement in relation to the first observation because, as can be seen in chart # 2, 60% of the criteria are evaluated as good and 40 % as regular; there was no criterion evaluated as bad. However, the available areas continue with bad conditions of sanitization, cleanliness, signs and lack of paint. The available means are maintained in the same state of the first observation. (Table 7)

Therefore, taking into account the instruments applied and their results, it allows the determination of the SWOT matrix, its crossing and interpretation, as well as the strategies to follow in the elaboration of the action plan for the development of seated volleyball as a community recreational alternative.

Determination of the SWOT matrix (Weaknesses, Threats, Strengths and Opportunities). (See charts 8 and 9).

Table.  8. - SWOT matrix.


Table.  9 - SWOT matrix crossing.


 

Interpretation of the SWOT matrix

 

BIBLIOGRAFICAL REFERENCES

Castro González, S. (2010). Unidad Didáctica: Iniciación al voleibol sentado. EFDeportes.

Chile . (22 de Junio de 2015). Conoce los 5 objetivos que tiene el deporte adaptado. Obtenido de https://www.teletón.cl: https://www.teletón.cl/noticias/conoce-los-5-objetivos-que-tiene-el-deporte-adaptado

Crispín, C. D. (18 de agosto de 2018). https://www.google.com/search?q=proyecto+cultural+estudies.Obtenido de https://www.reserchgate.net/.../27345410-social-impact-of-Olympic-Studies

Federación Internacional de Deportes para Minusválidos. (2015). paradeportes.com. Obtenido de paradeportes.com: Obtenido de http://www.paradeportes.com

Instituto Nacional de Deportes Educación Física y Recreación(INDER). (2017). Programa de dirección cuatrienio 2017-2020. Area de Recreación Física. La Habana: Deportes.

Paradeportes. (2017). Voleibol sentado:noticias, reglamento,historia y mucho más. Citado febrero de 2018, Recuperado de http://www.paradeporte.com/voley-sentado

Sanz Morales, A. (2014). Voleibol sentado, una alternativa en deportes para discapacitados. Madrid: Departamento de deportes, Universidad politécnica de Madrid.

 


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Copyright (c) 2019
Humberto Durañona Nápoles, Eddy Alejandro Blet Peña, Yadira Rives Fernández, Daril Domínguez Núñez.