Revista PODIUM, May-August 2020; 15(2): 331-341
Translated from the original in spanish
Methodological proposal for the teaching of the control guided with the sole of foot in indoor soccer
Propuesta metodológica para la enseñanza del control orientado con la planta de pie en el indoor soccer
Proposta metodológica para o ensino do controlo orientado com a base de pés no futsal
Alexander Castro Figueredo1* https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9532-0581
Esteban Juan Pérez Hernández2 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2640-0291
Héctor Noa Cuadro2 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1873-8025
1Universidad de Holguín, Facultad de Cultura Física, Holguín, Cuba.
2Universidad de Ciencias de la Cultura Física.
*Author for correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: November 14th, 2019.
Approved: April 4th, 2020.
The work aims to provide a working tool for teachers and coaches who teach indoor soccer in the initial or training stage, specifically at the child's age. The document describes the most essential elements of the movement or technical gesture, simple methodological steps to follow, and the most common errors that can appear during its execution. The research arises for the need to contribute to the process of teaching the orientated control of the ball with the sole of the foot in indoor soccer and states as objective: To propose a methodology that contributes to the teaching of the orientated control of the ball with the sole of the foot in the indoor soccer infantile category of Holguín. Besides, it is based on the review and analysis of previous researches principally in soccer and adapted to the indoor soccer attending to its specific characteristics, in the direct observation in the trainings and games of the infantile category in the municipality Holguín, as well as, the processing of interviews and surveys to trainers, teachers and practitioners. Therefore, it provides an option for teaching the technique of ball control oriented to children who are initiated in indoor soccer, who as systematic practitioners can learn this technique easier.
Keywords: sexual diversity; female soccer; educational actions.
La investigación pretende colocar una herramienta de trabajo para los profesores y entrenadores que enseñan el futsal en la etapa inicial o formativa, específicamente en la edad infantil. El documento describe los elementos más esenciales del movimiento o gesto técnico, pasos metodológicos sencillos a seguir y los errores más comunes que pueden aparecer durante su ejecución. Esta surge por la necesidad de contribuir al proceso de enseñanza del control orientado del balón con la planta de pie en el futsal y describe como objetivo proponer una metodología que contribuya a la enseñanza del control orientado del balón con la planta del pie en el futsal categoría infantil de Holguín. La investigación, además, está basada en la revisión y análisis de investigaciones anteriores, principalmente en el fútbol y adaptadas al futsal, atendiendo a sus características específicas, en la observación directa en los entrenamientos, juegos de la categoría infantil en el municipio Holguín, el procesamiento de entrevistas y encuestas a entrenadores, profesores y practicantes. Por tanto, aporta una opción de enseñanza de la técnica control orientado del balón a niños que se inician en el deporte de futsal que como practicantes sistemáticos podrán aprender esta técnica con mayor facilidad.
Palabras clave: control orientado; enseñanza; futsal; infantil; pasos metodológicos; propuesta metodológica.
A investigação visa fornecer uma ferramenta para professores e treinadores que ensinam futsal na fase inicial ou formativa, especificamente em crianças. O documento descreve os elementos mais essenciais do movimento ou gesto técnico, os passos metodológicos simples a seguir e os erros mais comuns que podem surgir durante a sua execução. Surge da necessidade de contribuir para o processo de ensino do controlo com a base do pé no futsal e descreve o objectivo de propor uma metodologia que contribua para o ensino do controlo com a base do pé na categoria de futsal infantil de Holguín. A investigação baseia-se também na revisão e análise de pesquisas anteriores, principalmente no futebol e adaptadas ao futsal de acordo com as suas características específicas, na observação direta de sessões de treinamento e jogos da categoria de crianças no município de Holguín, e no processamento de entrevistas e inquéritos a treinadores, professores e praticantes. Por conseguinte, proporciona uma opção de ensino da técnica do controlo da bola às crianças que estão a começar no desporto de Futsal e que, como praticantes sistemáticos, serão capazes de aprender mais facilmente esta técnica.
Palavras-chave: controlo orientado; ensino; futsal; de crianças; etapas metodológicas; proposta metodológica.
In modern indoor soccer, several researchers as Camps, A.; Acedo, F. J. & Rojo, J. (2008), Boada (2013), García (2013) y Beltrán (2015) state that the control with the foot is usually performed stepping the ball. For example, when it comes from a partner´s pass, they will always step the ball to have it under control. If it is not wanted to stop the ball in order it goes on the most convenient direction, it should be briefly controlled stepping it and immediately displace it with the same sole foot. This offensive technical action is known as “guided control”. And it consist on receiving the ball and at the same time let it in predisposition to chain it with next desired action. Therefore, the guided control, the ball control and its orientation is carried out in only one contact. According to these authors, to master this technical gesture is fundamental in a very rapid sport like this one, because if the palyer is sable to economize the kiks, it will allow him to get the objective before his rival Según estos autores, dominar este gesto técnico es fundamental en un deporte tan rápido como este, porque si el jugador es capaz de economizar los toques le permitirá conseguir sus objetivos antes que su rival lo imped it. It is a technical gesture that is used in the same way by the goal keepers and the players, although, as it is logicaly the players repeat more often. Coro (2020) refers that guided controls may be done with all parts of the body the rule accept, but the most used are: foot, chest and head. With the foot, the contact surface that are mainly the interior and the sole.
Csanadi (2005) suggests that targeted controls achieve two different objectives with a single touch of the ball: controlling the ball and properly guiding it to be played in the best possible conditions. Oriented ball control can even be used to pass the ball directly to a teammate, which is known in football jargon as "playing with one touch". The player gets a lot of advantage from this type of ball control if he succeeds, because it saves time and gives more speed to the game, which will help speed up the offense on the opponent's goal. But the targeted control of the ball is also going to be very useful for defensive play, as it can serve to avoid the defensive pressure of the opponent's team. In this sense, it is much easier to protect the possession of the ball if it is held for less time, so in the game it is considered a priority to release the ball as soon as possible, to force the opponent to run after the ball. In this way, targeted control of the ball will help to remove the ball from the opponent's area much more quickly and with fewer touches of the ball. With the directional control you move the ball away from the area where the opponent comes to press, allowing you to interpose your body between the opponent and the ball, as well as orienting yourself in the direction of your partner, to whom you can pass the ball before the opponent has a chance to steal it.
According to Guanche (2012), in his undergraduate thesis, there are two types of controls, simple and complex (oriented control). The first is done by cushioning the ball in place and the second allows the ball to be controlled through a turn, facing the desired area to perform a new technical action.
Nowadays, in modern indoor soccer, it has become clear that the intention is to play a quick game with as little ball retention as possible by a player, something that has not been done properly so far. This has been demonstrated in practice through direct observation of games in international, national, provincial and municipal championships.
In the province of Holguín, despite the fact that in the last years a good performance has been shown in the competitive field, both physical and tactical, and this has allowed to be included among the 8 first places of the country, it is known by the specialists in charge of the preparations and directions of these groups that in the technical order they exclude within the planning the oriented control leaving it to the possibilities of mobility in the field of each player during the exercises and games. The exploratory processes of the diagnosis used to characterize the situation of the technique in the athletes of Indoor soccer of the infantile category of the municipality Holguín, related to the use of the oriented control with the sole of the foot, has allowed to compile a valuable information that makes possible to illustrate with clarity the detected deficiencies by means of the following scientific evidences:
The application of instruments and the experience of the author reveal the existence of other limitations, both theoretical and practical, in relation to the technical element of targeted control.
All of the above leads the authors to declare the following as a scientific problem: how can we contribute to the process of teaching the ball control with the sole of the foot in the Indoor soccer children's category in Holguin? In order to give solution to the raised problem it is proposed like objective to propose a methodology that contributes to the teaching of the oriented control of the ball with the foot sole in the Indoor soccer infantile category of Holguín.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
From the theoretical level
The historical-logical method established the relationship with the history of Indoor soccer in its historical development until the technique of oriented control. The analytical-synthetic method allowed the decomposition of the phenomenon, in the technical phases of the oriented control, allowing a casuistic analysis of the elements that compose it, that is to say, the position of the body, the damping and position of the foot in the moment of the arrival, then the integration is made, allowing its relation and characteristics. The inductive-deductive method made it possible to combine the movements of the particular to the general, in this case from a simple control of the ball to other chained actions such as driving, passing, shooting, etc.
Del nivel empírico
Direct observation methods were used, which made it possible to reveal a group of information on the phenomenon under research, determined in advance, by preparing a guide or plan of observations that will make it possible to control the results. The surveys and interviews allowed for the collection of information on the problem posed and the opinions of practitioners and specialists, related to the training teaching processes, in the technique of the oriented control they receive.
A purposeful sample of 12 male indoor soccer players from the children's category of the Holguín municipality was used, taking into account as an inclusion criterion that all can enhance the guided control during a game. They represent 100 % of the population.
A study of four cup matches between sports teams was carried out. An observation guide was prepared for this research, which aimed to evaluate the performance of the controls with the sole of the foot under playing conditions.
The present work constitutes a contribution to the process of teaching-learning, specifically of the technique of the oriented control of the ball with the sole of the foot, contributing to the knowledge of aspects few treated in the Cuban Indoor soccer in previous studies.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
During the bibliographic search, the specialized sources, publications, newspapers, articles, teaching programs of Indoor soccer sport in Cuba, the basic national bibliography of Football were reviewed: Csanadi (2005) and Talaga (1989), together with the necessary support from Internet searches, highlighting authors such as Beltrán (2015), Marcos (2010), Palau (2005), Camps, Acedo and Rojo (2008), Suárez (2012), Cortés (2014), Candelas (2012), Boada (2013) and García (2013); which provide innovative elements for the development of this sport. It was possible to appreciate that, in this last one, details related to the technical element oriented control appear, contributing together with the results thrown, to a better clarification and planning of a coherent methodology for the teaching of this technical element.
An interview was applied to the investigated sample and it was shown that the children (100 %) do not know what the technique of oriented control consists of, eight assure to have practiced in the trainings the reception with the sole of the foot for 67 %, five indicate that they dominate the change of direction with the ball for 42 %, and the 12 the reception and pass are determinant elements in the speed of the game and they train it for 100 %.
A survey was made to two coaches who work with the children's category in the municipality of Holguin. In the question related to the definition of ball control as a technical element, both answered correctly, representing 100 %. In the knowledge of the types of controls of the ball they both indicate the existence of simple and compound controls, without mentioning the oriented control showing ignorance, which represents 0 %, they associated the term to administrative and methodological indicators and they do not train it as technical element of indoor soccer, representing 100 %. The 100 % raise that in the educational programs they are not guided on the soccer technique of the guided control and they totally ignore the advantages that the guided control offers with respect to the simple or classic controls, these represent a 0 %.
The observation guide has as objective to know if the studied technical action is used when the ball that approaches and does not come comfortable to pass it of first intention within a forced situation of game where the pressure of the opponent causes that the player perceives, decides and executes the control taking advantage of his position. For this purpose, an analysis of the technical elements of interest was made separately during the observation of four games, and the following was detected (Table 1).
Table 1. - Analysis of the technical elements of interest separately during the observation of four sets
As can be seen in the table above, four complex actions were controlled that materialize during the game and are related to the sole-oriented control technique. They are observed by hundreds of low because there are many negative actions related mainly to bad reception with the sole of the foot, losses of the ball, bad passes and shots outside the goal.
Methodological proposal for teaching technique Fundamentals of indoor soccer oriented control
Guanche (2012) proposes that,
"Control is to get hold of the ball, master it and leave it in the right conditions to be played immediately with a later action. There are several types of control (stop, semi-stop, cushioning, etc.) but the most interesting is the oriented control, whose purpose is to control and guide the ball at the same time by means of a single contact. You can use any part of the body allowed".
Similarly, Cortés (2014) states that,
"In today's indoor soccer the most important is with the sole of the foot, as it achieves perfect and quick control to provide a technical benefit to the team."
Returning to Guanche (2012), he points out that there are a number of principles to bear in mind when it comes to controlling the sole of the foot, which he states as follows:
Since control presupposes possession of the ball Salamanca (2012) also considers that its execution will depend on the possibility of releasing or scoring, wide or small space, adequate accompaniment and support to one of his companions, as well as the tactical convenience of doing so. The offensive or defensive control will be a technical-tactical condition for the speed of the action as a whole. It is important to control the ball and leave it with a single touch in favorable conditions for later action, both for your own benefit and for the benefit of a teammate.
Being able to control with any part of the body, there are many ways to do it, but the most important is with the sole of the foot, because it is the one that is done more times during the games.
The control with the sole of the foot must be executed with a high level of precision, in order to occupy the space of progression optimally (Example: if the ball is badly oriented, a new contact is used to execute the action). It is important to give the ball the right amount of power, so that it can be coordinated with the ball (e.g. if the ball is too short, a new contact is needed and the speed of execution is reduced, while if the ball is too long, there is a risk of losing control and it will not be possible to perform the action). From a morphological point of view, during the execution of the ball, joints such as the coxofemoral, the patella and important muscles such as the sartorius, popliteus, abdominal muscles, as well as the twin and soleus, the muscular set of the quadriceps femoris, as well as the long and short flexors of the toes, are involved. It is essential to have a good perception of time and space, to maintain total concentration on each detail for the technical execution and to have a good imagination to solve with creativity changing situations that may arise in the game.
Advantages over classic controls
Aguilar (2019) in his bachelor thesis states that,
"The technical element of sole control is a step forward in modern indoor soccer, its greatest value lies in the adaptability it has at different times in the game, it is used to receive the ball in a targeted manner and then pass to a teammate or to drive through a space or shoot at a goal.
Functional morpho-description of the plantar muscles
The muscles of the sole of the foot can be divided into three planes: deep, medium and superficial. The deep plane is innervated by the lateral plantar nerve branch of the tibial nerve, the dorsal and plantar interosseous which participate in the flexion and extension of the foot, and abduction and adduction of the toes, with the axis of the foot (second toe) as a reference. The opposing muscle of the little toe that tracts in the plantar and medial direction. The main movement of the technique is the dorsal flexion, movement of approaching the back of the foot to the front of the leg and its range of motion is 0 to 20 degrees.
Description of the oriented control with the foot sole According to Guanche (2012), he states that,
"The player performs the movement looking for the ball in anticipation of its arrival, the support leg is semi-flexed at the knee and ankle, the one that receives the ball is always carried forward looking for the ball and the foot making a dorsal flexion (in a position as if it were the support of the accelerator of a car) so that the sole of the foot makes contact with the ball in its totality without reaching the heel and in turn presses it against the surface of the ground cushioning the impact until total control is achieved so that it can be pulled or pushed in the desired direction simultaneously with a moving turn that can be continued with a drive, pass or shot at goal. This movement is done in a coordinated and continuous manner".
In short, the player will be able to say that he has acceptable sole control of the ball when he is able to:
Methodological steps to be followed
Most common errors
The analysis of the theoretical references found that there are numerous authors who have dealt with the subject researched, however, there is a lack of teaching and learning about the oriented control of the ball with the sole of the foot. The same contributes to look for a second moment inside the contact with the ball that allows the player to carry out very exact movements, simplifying time and effort so much individual, group and collaborative in function of the team game, offering a work tool when presenting the description of the technique, methodological steps for its teaching and more common errors to be able to raise the technical level in practitioners of indoor soccer infantile category of Holguín.
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Conflict of interests:
The authors declare not to have any interest conflicts.
The authors have participated in the writing of the work and analysis of the documents.
This work is under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International license.
Copyright (c) 2020 Alexander Castro Figueredo, Esteban Juan Pérez Hernández, Héctor Noa Cuadro