PODIUM. Journal of Science and Technology in Physical Culture, May-August; 16(2):616-628
Translated from the original in spanish
Bodybuilding training and formation activities project: a service-learning experience
Proyecto de actividades de entrenamiento y formación en Culturismo: una experiencia aprendizaje-servicio
Projecto de atividades de treinamento e educação em musculação: uma experiência de serviço-aprendizagem
Edison Santiago Guerrero González1* https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1674-7657
Tyrone Macías Vera1 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9075-2019
Richar Jacobo Posso Pacheco2 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1279-9852
Mishel Saa Cedillo2 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8706-0804
Ricardo Patricio Játiva Burbano2 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1977-1660
1Central University of Ecuador. Ecuador.
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Universities as a space for human formation are called to provide social service to the communities through linkage projects, in which their subjects are articulated through the service learning methodology, which will involve students in the real context and social service with their academic work. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the contents of the subject Dual Chair through the service learning methodology, in the project of linkage with society called Grouping of training and formation activities in bodybuilding of the Faculty of Physical Culture of the Central University of Ecuador and the results of the perception of the beneficiaries in the components of physical space and resources, activities, and degree of satisfaction of the project. The study was hermeneutic and documentary. Two techniques were applied: documentary analysis, a stakeholder matrix instrument, and a survey with a bank of 11 questions with a rating scale, applied to 168 beneficiaries of the project based on three components: physical space, resources, activities and degree of satisfaction. It can be said that it has been possible to consolidate the learning of the students in each of the activities developed in the project, in addition the evaluation process has been very well accepted by the beneficiaries, highlighting the value of the service learning methodology in the formation of the students and their link to social service.
Keywords: Service-learning; University; Social linkage; Formation in bodybuilding.
Las universidades como espacio de formación humana están llamadas a brindar un servicio social a las comunidades a través de proyectos de vinculación, en la cual se articulen sus asignaturas por medio de la metodología aprendizaje servicio, lo que involucrará al estudiante al contexto real y al servicio social con su quehacer académico. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en evaluar la aplicación de los contenidos de la asignatura Cátedra Dual por medio de la metodología de enseñanza aprendizaje servicio, en el proyecto de vinculación con la sociedad llamado Agrupación de actividades de entrenamiento y formación en el culturismo de la Facultad de Cultura Física de la Universidad Central de Ecuador y los resultados de la percepción de los beneficiarios en los componentes espacio físico y recursos, actividades, y grado de satisfacción del proyecto. El estudio fue hermenéutico y documental. Se aplicaron dos técnicas: el análisis documental, instrumento de matriz de involucrados, y la encuesta con un banco de 11 preguntas con escala valorativa, aplicadas a 168 beneficiarios del proyecto basada en tres componentes: el espacio físico, recursos, actividades y grado de satisfacción. Se puede decir que se han podido consolidar los aprendizajes de los estudiantes en cada una de las actividades desarrolladas en el proyecto, además el proceso de evaluación ha tenido una muy buena acepción por parte de los beneficiados, destacando la valía de la metodología aprendizaje servicio en la formación de los estudiantes y su vinculación al servicio social.
Palabras clave: Aprendizaje servicio; Universidad; Vinculación social; Formación en culturismo.
As universidades como espaços de formação humana são chamadas a fornecer serviço social às comunidades, através de projetos de proximidade, nos quais as suas disciplinas são articuladas através da metodologia-serviço-aprendizagem, que envolverá o estudante no contexto real, ao serviço social com o seu trabalho académico. O objectivo deste estudo foi avaliar a aplicação dos conteúdos da disciplina Cátedra Dual através da metodologia ensino-aprendizagem-serviço, no Projecto de ligação com a sociedade, denominado Agrupamento de atividades de formação e educação na musculação, da Faculdade de Cultura Física da Universidade Central do Equador e os resultados da percepção dos beneficiários nas componentes espaço físico e recursos, atividades e grau de satisfação do projeto. O estudo foi hermenêutico e documental, foram aplicadas duas técnicas: a análise documental e um instrumento da matriz de envolvidos e o inquérito com um banco de 11 questões com escala de valor, aplicado a 168 beneficiários do projecto, com base em três componentes que foram o espaço físico e os recursos, as atividades e o grau de satisfação. Pode-se dizer que tem sido possível consolidar a aprendizagem dos estudantes em cada uma das atividades desenvolvidas no projeto, além disso, o processo de avaliação tem tido uma aceitação muito favorável por parte dos beneficiários, realçando o valor da metodologia de service-learning na formação dos estudantes e a sua ligação ao serviço social.
Palavras-chave: Service-learning; Universidade; Ligação social; Formação em musculação.
Service-learning is a learning methodology, integrated to the syllabus of the subjects or practical analysis units of the career of Physical Activity and Sport Pedagogy of the Faculty of Physical Culture of the Central University of Ecuador; in it the university student makes available to his/her social and community environment the cognitive competences achieved during his/her period of academic formation, with the purpose of successfully facing the social problems previously diagnosed in a specific environment, in which commitment, values, civism, solidarity and respect are included.
In other words, service-learning has its roots in a solidarity project that unites the academic with the social environment, its foundation is born from the university reform of Cordoba in 1918, which joins the functions of university teaching and research with the objective of "Putting university knowledge at the service of society and make their problems a priority issue of their concerns" (Aguirre, and Moreno Toledano, 2013).
Simbaña (2015) argues that the link with society is one of the most important functions of the university and constitutes a political and academic tool that allows the articulation in practice of teaching and research as substantive functions of higher education institutions.
Hence, service learning is one of the ways for the university to link with society, it is the space where the competencies developed by students are put into practice, but even more, it is the transitory scenario to propose timely solutions to a more demanding society, unlike the traditional and behaviorist methodologies established in these educational spaces (Posso, et al., 2020).
In this sense, Brito-Gaona et al., (2018) is part of the concern of Latin American universities to transcend institutional boundaries, bringing their action closer to different sectors of society. However, because it is a complex activity that demands from universities a social commitment based on directing actions to solve problems, in these academic spaces it has not yet found a clear and unified concretion for its execution (Universidad Central de Chile, 2016).
In the context of university education, the link with society is an essential function of the educational system at this level, and is harmonized with research and teaching thus founding the pillars of academia (Rodríguez, et al., 2018), thus attesting to the "commitment and pertinence of higher education institutions with current social needs and with the profiles related to the professional in formation" (Brito-Gaona et al., 2018) (Figure 1).
Fig. 1. Articulation of linkage projects with society
Taken from Brito-Gaona, et al., (2018).
In this context, the link with society is properly regulated within the legal agreements that determine the being and doing of university higher education in the National Assembly of Ecuador (2018), specifically in articles 13, 107 and 125. Likewise, article 13 emphasizes that the function of the higher education system is to guarantee the right to education through teaching, research and its link with society, and to ensure increasing levels of quality, academic excellence and pertinence.
By virtue of the aforementioned, the university linkage with the community is made operational through a project organized by a set of activities, duly planned, to meet a specific need or requirement of the social sectors in which the careers intervene, with the participation of teachers and students (Higher Education Council 2015).
In this sense, the Central University of Ecuador in response to the demands of the country's educational system and as part of its academic assets, has developed a set of programs and initiatives for linkage with society, the same are managed from the Directorate of Linkage with Society in which each of the faculties has its own commission, and ensures that the planned activities meet the criteria of pertinence related to the student graduation profile, and the needs of society especially priority social groups (Universidad Central de Ecuador, 2018).
Based on the above, the Dual Chair Analysis Unit was linked to the Project of grouping of training and formation activities in bodybuilding of the Faculty of Physical Culture, because it covers contents such as weightlifting and its basic fundamentals, techniques for the execution of the pull-up, the Olympic pull-up and muscle work, intending to apply this knowledge in the project through the teaching methodology Service Learning. This with the purpose of fulfilling certain indicators that allow the link with society, developing a project to contribute to the formation of students and the community in general. All this with the responsibility in the art of bodybuilding, thus providing the student in service to be able to assume and live their academic formation, leading him to be in constant contact with the community and thereby achieve institutional prestige.
Through the project of training and formation activities in bodybuilding, it is sought to create a group that encompasses the widest range of activities, facts, knowledge and scientific data related to this discipline, which contributes to the integral development and formation of the body in the participant, all this through three methodologies: the first based on training and exercise systems, the second, the indispensable nutrition within the plans that the bodybuilders carry and the third, the competitive routine programs with the correct use of the body resource and the implements that are needed in this competition.
Based on the above, the objective of this study is to evaluate the application of the contents of the subject Dual Chair through the teaching methodology Service Learning in the Project of linkage with society called Grouping of training and formation activities in bodybuilding of the Physical Culture Faculty of the Central University of Ecuador and the results of the perception of the beneficiaries in the components physical space and resources, activities, and degree of satisfaction of the project.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This article was based on a documentary and hermeneutic study, because it was based and analyzed the impact of service learning in the project called grouping of training and formation activities in bodybuilding of the Faculty of Physical Culture of the Central University of Ecuador.
Two techniques were applied: documentary analysis and survey; the first one allowed the analysis of the project of training and formation activities in bodybuilding, defining the contributions of the Dual Chair Analysis Unit through the service learning methodology, through a matrix of stakeholders in which the contributions of the interest groups, the perceived problems, the interest in the project and the potential conflicts are established.
In the survey technique, a bank of 11 questions was established with a rating scale of bad [M], regular [R], good [B], very good [MB] and excellent [E], which responds to the question: What is the perception of the beneficiaries in the different components of the project? The validation of the instrument bank of questions was not carried out because they were provided by the Directorate of Linkage with Society of the Central University of Ecuador.
For the information inquiry process, the entire population that participated in the project was used, which was 168 beneficiaries, to whom the instrument was applied based on three components: Physical space and resources, activities, and degree of satisfaction; each one with evaluation criteria as shown in table (Table 1).
Tabla 1. Instrument components and dimensions
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results of the documentary review
As a result of the documentary analysis of the project, the construction of the stakeholder matrix was proposed as a tool that extracted the varied and conflicting interests of all the groups related to the project through the application of the contents by means of the Service-Learning teaching methodology of the Dual Chair Analysis Unit. This stakeholder matrix allows in the first instance to evaluate the degree of support or opposition to the project of these stakeholders and the resources and mandates available to them (Table 2).
Table 2. - Stakeholder matrix
Groups of students were consolidated for training and formation activities in bodybuilding at the Faculty of Physical Culture of the Central University of Ecuador, which are in constant preparation and guidance of specialist teachers and students of the Dual Chair analysis unit, who carried out the appropriate monitoring allowing to achieve:
The planned training and formation activities in bodybuilding were established based on the professional profile of the teacher in charge and the social demands, focused on the mutual benefit between executors and participants:
The mandatory bodybuilding poses allow to appreciate all the details of the athletes' physique. It is looked for a harmonious and proportionate physique, well developed and without weak points. In relation to the elaboration of exhibition choreography for competitions and events, a one-minute presentation accompanied by a song is considered with the following elements: dance, poses, aesthetics and elegance.
As can be seen in table 2, in relation to the variable physical space and resources in the dimension of facilities for the use of physical space, 51.78 % of the beneficiaries of the project rated the students in service as very good, 25 % rated them as excellent, while 21 % rated them as good and only 1.7 % rated them as regular.
Regarding the students' attendance dimension, 40.4 % gave them an evaluation of good, 32.7 % excellent, while 25 % rated them as very good and only 1.7 % rated them as regular.
Regarding the teachers' attendance dimension, 37.5 % gave them a rating of excellent, 32.7 % gave them a rating of very good, 27.3 % good, while 2.3 % gave them a rating of regular.
According to the results in this variable, a high degree of responsibility is observed on the part of the service providers, this being one of the aspects that promotes service-learning in the students, in this sense Puig (2014) refers that in service-learning one learns to serve the community, but at the same time the service activities become a source of new competencies and values. Learning and service are linked in a circular relationship in which both parties benefit: learning acquires civic sense and service becomes a workshop of knowledge and values (Table 3).
Table 3. - Physical space and resources component
Regarding the activities component shown in table 3, in the dimension of compliance with scheduled dates, the in-service students were evaluated as excellent by 61.3 % of the beneficiaries, 26.7 % as very good and 11.9 % as good. Regarding the dimension Compliance with scheduled hours, 48.8 % of the beneficiaries evaluated this aspect as excellent, 27.3 % as very good, 22 % indicated a good evaluation and only 1.7 % indicated that it was fair. In the dimension Availability of time to carry out the activities, 37.5 % gave them an excellent evaluation and 32.7 % of the beneficiaries rated it as very good and 27.3 % as good.
Once again, the evaluation shows that there is a sense of commitment and responsibility on the part of the service providers. In this sense, service-learning strengthens all student competencies at the conceptual, procedural and attitudinal levels (Simbaña, 2015).
Table 4. - Component activities
Table 4 shows that 60.7 % of the beneficiaries rated the quality of the activities carried out as excellent, 17.8 % as very good and 13.6 % as good. Regarding the fulfillment of activities developed, 37.5 % of the beneficiaries gave an evaluation of excellent and 32.7 % of very good, 22.6 % good and only 7.14 % regular. With reference to the dimension of satisfaction of the organization with the implementation of the project, 45.2 % considered it very good, 36.3 % good and 18.4% excellent. Student behavior was evaluated as excellent by 48.8 % of the participants, 27.3 % as very good, 22 % as good and only 1.7 % as fair. Likewise, the behavior of the teachers was evaluated as excellent by 41.6 % of the beneficiaries, 34.5 % evaluated them as very good and 23.8 % as good (Table 4).
Based on the evaluation received, the Latin American Center for Solidarity Learning and Service (2016) emphasizes that in the service-learning practices the student becomes the protagonist in the activities and the teacher ratifies his role as companion, guide and observer. This project methodology enables both actors to lead their own learning, and through active involvement allows them to acquire new knowledge from what they already have, to reflect and use it in other social and communicative contexts, which becomes functional learning (Table 5).
Table 5. - Component Level of satisfaction
The project linkage of training and formation activities in bodybuilding of the Faculty of Physical Culture of the Central University of Ecuador, in which the contents of the Unit of Analysis Dual Chair were applied through the service learning methodology, shows that it has been possible to consolidate the learning of the students in each of the activities developed in the project, due to the analysis of the groups and their interests, as well as their perceived problems and conflicts in practice.
In addition, the evaluation process has been very well accepted by the beneficiaries, this inference is based on the results obtained in the application of the instrument, such as the case that in the physical space and resources variable in the three dimensions in which the participants were evaluated received a rating among good, very good and excellent, this means that both students and teachers put into practice their developed competencies to demonstrate mastery in the use of the physical space, in addition they were responsible in terms of attendance, this means that there is acceptance and belonging in the actors involved (students and teachers) for the service-learning project proposed by the Faculty of Physical Culture of the Universidad Central del Ecuador.
Regarding the second variable activities, the evaluation received was excellent in all three dimensions, which represents that the service providers (students and teachers) responsibly complied with the dates and times planned, respected the time for the development of the activities, an important aspect because it generates a state of trust, and also allows the beneficiaries to schedule and organize their time to attend the activities, confident that they will be respected in the schedule.
In this same sense, in the variable level of satisfaction, the evaluations received are centered between very good and excellent in terms of the quality of the activities developed, the fulfillment of activities, the satisfaction of the organization with the implementation of the project and the behavior of the students and teachers. The significance of this evaluation in the aspects mentioned above give reference to how assertive the organizers of the project "grouping of training and formation activities in bodybuilding" have been in terms of the organization and implementation of the proposal, the acceptance by the community involved is appreciated, It is also a demonstration of the formative quality of the students of the Faculty of Physical Culture of the Central University of Ecuador in terms of service-learning and the vocation of teachers to be active participants, which guarantees the university transcendence and the link of this with society, thus validating and complying with the requirements of the Ecuadorian Organic Law of Higher Education.
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Conflict of interests:
The authors declare not to have any interest conflicts.
Edison Santiago Guerrero González: Conception of the idea, database preparation, drafting of the original (first version), article correction, authorship coordinator.
Tyrone Macías Vera: Literature search and review, instrument application, statistic analysis, general advice on the topic addressed, drafting of the original (first version), review of the application of the applied bibliographic standard.
Richar Jacobo Posso Pacheco: Instrument application, review of the application of the applied bibliographic standard.
Mishel Saa Cedillo: Instrument making, compilation of information resulting from the instruments applied, statistic analysis, preparation of tables, graphs and images, database preparation, review and final version of the article.
Ricardo Patricio Játiva Burbano: Database preparation, general advice on the topic addressed.
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional.
Copyright (c) 2021 Edison Santiago Guerrero González, Tyrone Macías Vera, Richar Jacobo Posso Pacheco, Mishel Saa Cedillo, Ricardo Patricio Játiva Burbano