PODIUM. Journal of Science and Technology in Physical Culture, January-April 2022; 17(1):274-285
Translated from the original in spanish
The laterality importance in the dribbling development in basketball initiation
Importancia de la lateralidad en el desarrollo del dribling en la iniciación al baloncesto
Importância da lateralidade no desenvolvimento do driblem na iniciação do basquetebol
Juan Andrés Manangón Vinueza1* https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5518-0166
1Central University of Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador.
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Lateralization, being the motor preference of one side of the body over the other, has practical applications in sports, since the control and empowerment of the right-handed and non-right-handed side require previous analysis and specific development strategies. In this sense, and as a first step of the research, it is proposed as an objective to validate theoretically through national and international specialists a proposal of laterality indicators to be taken into account in the training of dribbling in initiation basketball. The research is theoretical-descriptive, of correlational order and qualitative analysis, studying the theoretical criteria issued by 13 national basketball specialists (Group 1) and ten foreign specialists (Group 2). Of the nine indicators analyzed, in 6 there were significant differences in the criteria issued by each independent group (LV: p=0.000; LH: p=0.000; LC: p=0.002; Pdi: p=0.000; PE: p=0.000 and ME: p=0.001), with the exception of the Dynamic Hand (Mdi: p=0.648), director hand (MD: p=0.738) and the non-director hand indicator (MnD: p=0.605). All the average ranges issued by the international specialists were higher than in the national specialists, indicating that the former consider of greater importance the training of various indicators of laterality in the dribbling of initiation basketball. In this sense, it is recommended to carry out methodological work with national specialists in order to improve the understanding of the importance of laterality training in all its manifestations, specifying aspects related to technical and technical-tactical training, including dribbling as a fundamental technique.
Keywords: Laterality; Dribbling; Initiation basketball.
La lateralización, al ser la preferencia motriz de un lado del cuerpo sobre el otro, tiene aplicaciones prácticas en los deportes, pues el control y potenciación del lado diestro y no diestro requieren de análisis previos y de estrategias específicas de desarrollo. En tal sentido, y como primer paso de la investigación, se propone como objetivo validar teóricamente a través de especialistas nacionales e internacionales una propuesta de indicadores de lateralidad a tener en cuenta en el entrenamiento del dribling del baloncesto de iniciación. La investigación es teórica-descriptiva, de orden correlacional y análisis cualitativo, estudiando los criterios teóricos emitidos por 13 especialistas nacionales de baloncesto (Grupo 1) y diez especialistas extranjeros (Grupo 2). De los nueve indicadores analizados, en 6 existieron diferencias significativas en los criterios emitidos por cada grupo independiente (LV: p=0.000; LH: p=0.000; LC: p=0.002; Pdi: p=0.000; PE: p=0.000 y ME: p=0.001), con excepción de la Mano Dinámica (Mdi: p=0.648), mano director (MD: p=0.738) y el indicador mano no director (MnD: p=0.605). Todos los rangos promedios emitidos por los especialistas internacionales fueron mayores que en los especialistas nacionales, indicativo de que los primeros consideran de mayor importancia el entrenamiento de diversos indicadores de lateralidad en el dribling del baloncesto de iniciación. En tal sentido, se recomienda realizar un trabajo metodológico con los especialistas nacionales en función de mejorar la comprensión sobre la importancia del entrenamiento de la lateralidad en todas sus manifestaciones, especificando aspectos relacionados con el entrenamiento técnico y técnico-táctico, incluyendo el dribling como técnica fundamental.
Palabras clave: Lateralidad; Dribling, Baloncesto de iniciación.
A lateralizarão, sendo a preferência motora de um lado do corpo sobre o outro, tem aplicações práticas no esporte, já que o controle e a capacitação do lado direito e do lado não direito exigem análise prévia e estratégias específicas de desenvolvimento. Neste sentido, e como primeiro passo da pesquisa, propõe-se como objetivo validar teoricamente através de especialistas nacionais e internacionais uma proposta de indicadores de lateralidade para levar em conta no treinamento de drible no basquetebol introdutório. A pesquisa é descritiva teórica, de ordem correlacional e análise qualitativa, estudando os critérios teóricos emitidos por 13 especialistas nacionais em basquetebol (Grupo 1) e dez especialistas estrangeiros (Grupo 2). Dos nove indicadores analisados, em 6 houve diferenças significativas nos critérios emitidos por cada grupo independente (LV: p=0,000; LH: p=0,000; LC: p=0,002; Pdi: p=0,000; PE: p=0,000 e ME: p=0,001), com exceção da Mão Dinâmica (Mdi: p=0,648), mão direcionadora (MD: p=0,738) e do indicador de mão não direcionadora (MnD: p=0,605). Todas as faixas médias emitidas pelos especialistas internacionais foram superiores às dos especialistas nacionais, indicando que os primeiros consideram de maior importância o treinamento de vários indicadores de lateralidade no drible no basquetebol introdutório. Neste sentido, recomenda-se realizar um trabalho metodológico com especialistas nacionais a fim de melhorar a compreensão da importância do treinamento da lateralidade em todas as suas manifestações, especificando aspectos relacionados ao treinamento técnico e técnico-táctico, incluindo o drible como técnica fundamental.
Palavras-chave: Lateralidade; Driblem, Iniciação ao Basquetebol.
The different bibliographic sources consulted define bodily laterality as the motor preference of the frequent and effective use of one lateral half of the body over the other Ferré et al., (2000); Hurtado, Carrizosa (2002). The study of laterality applied to early childhood education and specialized physical activity implies the stimulation of motor activity on both parts of the body from early ages, so that the child acquires the necessary information to synthesize and make the choice of the preferred hand Rosales, Escalante, Lemus, (2017).
For the specific case of sport sciences, the study and improvement of body laterality involve developing the coordination capacity in different sports, taking into account their particularities, Dorochenko et al, (2018); González et al., (2019); Morales, González, (2015). These are integrated in the process of sports training management to improve the athlete's performance, which includes the control, manipulation and stimulation of the motor component, Gualdi-Russo et al., (2019); Córdova et al., (2021); Mayolas, (2011). On this basis, Bache and Orellana (2014) delimit that knowledge of the lateral preference of athletes can improve individual performance. Therefore, group performance on the playing field is fulfilled and in other contexts, as long as the correct actions are taken that should be trained as part of the sports planning model designed.
In cooperation-opposition sports, the coordination component plays an essential role, as it manifests itself in its totality in the technical-tactical performance of the athlete. (Morales, 2014; Calero, 2019). In the specific case of basketball, an eminently cooperative opposition sport, studies related to laterality include the characterization of the dominant parts of the body such as the work provided in Betancourt et al., (2020). These analyses are aimed at school and youth reserves, which, according to Gualdi-Russo, et al., (2019) emphasizes hand preference and performance in certain tasks performed in basketball. Works related to asymmetry to avoid the greatest performance and even injury deficits are also included (Mancha-Triguero et al., 2019).
Laterality studies applied to basketball start from the comparison that characterizes the players, with players of other sports, Wang et al., (2018). Here the basic and specific characteristics are recognized to establish specialized physical stimuli that allow the improvement of motor movement in the dominant and non-dominant limbs. An example of this is shown in the differentiation of performance levels and positions of the game, Versic et al., (2021) or in the profiling of external workloads in multiple anatomical joints including laterality. In these results, decision making for the design of specific strategies for training and prevention of sports injuries is raised, Gomez-Carmona et al., (2021). This originates because specific training involves curvilinear movements and high-intensity changes of direction in the game of basketball. This training is developed, especially because of the different motor patterns of each leg and arm according to the direction of the movement, as specified by the aforementioned authors.
Laterality is one of the essential elements to take into account in the training of sport technique, Marcin, (2020) as would be the case of dribbling in basketball, Gualdi-Russo et al., (2019). This component is produced, given the need for the athlete to move with the dominant hand, although making constant changes that require both hands and the dominance of the non-dominant hand to perform feints or deceptions to the opponent. In this sense, training laterality in basketball has a similar importance to that provided by various authors in its applicability in different sports. However, a first step for the design of a training model in basketball, which prioritizes contents to develop laterality, would be to previously carry out a theoretical validation by national specialists. This serves as a theoretical and methodological basis for selecting or designing future laterality indicators to be taken into account in a specialized technical-tactical training, as defined by Chicaiza Jácome (2021). It is worth adding that the indicators used in this study were elaborated based on the Chicaiza-Jácome (2021) criteria.
In this case, of the technical-offensive training of the initiation soccer player, the objective of the research is to validate theoretically through national and international specialists a proposal of laterality indicators to be taken into account in the training of dribbling in initiation basketball.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research is theoretical-descriptive, of correlational order and qualitative analysis, based on the study of the theoretical criteria issued by 13 national basketball specialists and 10 foreign specialists (United States of America, Spain, Cuba and Puerto Rico). These selection criteria are related to the number of years of experience in the sport under study (ten years) and the national results with emphasis on initiation basketball.
In the study, several theoretical indicators stated in the introduction to this work were taken into account; here they are expanded and adapted to the characteristics of the sample presented, the description of these indicators is as follows:
For the evaluation of the theoretical indicators, the specialists have been divided into two independent samples. (Group 1: National Specialists; Group 2: International Specialists), using a five-level Likert-type scale, assigning a quantitative and a qualitative value for each evaluation, as described below:
Since there is no normal distribution of the data, given the type of scale used, a nonparametric test for two independent samples will be used (Mann-Whitney U: p≤0.05), correlating and analyzing the data obtained in each analysis group.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 shows the results issued by the two independent groups of specialists consulted, according to nine analysis indicators that allow the comparison and/or understanding of the importance given theoretically by each specialist (Table 1).
Table 1. - Evaluations by independent groups in each indicator of analysis
In the case of indicator 1, related to Visual Laterality, national specialists give it an approximate theoretical importance for its training of three points (Good), but international specialists have given it a rating of four points (Very Good), indicating a greater importance and, therefore, a higher priority in specialized sports training. In terms of significant differences, the Mann-Whitney U test (Table 2) shows significant results (p=0.000) in favor of the posttest, with a higher average rank (18.50) than that established for the national specialists (7.00).
The visual training in basketball players, according to Rodriguez-Castela, (2019) is more promising within the specialized sport, including basketball, for which the design of various contents of visual training in basketball is a recurring theme in different specialized training models. From here, in part, international specialists give greater importance to the time dedicated as part of training, including dribbling, which has a direct relationship with the development of the visual field (Naranjo-Morante, 2019). On the other hand, analyzing the results reached by Chicaiza-Jácome (2021) for the case of soccer, there is evidence of a coincidence in the scores issued by the specialists that the mentioned author consulted with the results achieved in the present research. This is because the national specialists evidenced a lower score in visual training than that established by the international specialists. In view of these results, an integral analysis by national managers and methodologists is recommended in order to improve the knowledge related to visual training, with emphasis on initiation basketball.
For the case of indicator 2, related to the laterality of the shoulder, it is of importance in basketball for the performance of feints and throws of the ball, Betancourt et al., (2020); Morales, Carrión Ponce, (2016). National specialists give it an average score of points 3.
(Good), as this score is logically higher in basketball than the one established in soccer by Chicaiza-Jácome. (2021). On the other hand, international specialists score it with an average of 4 points (Very Good) for the present rersearch, it behaves significantly different in favor of the posttest (p=0.000). Shoulder instability is a significant decreasing factor in the effectiveness of basketball throwing, Lu et al., (2020). From all this, it can be deduced that a specialized physical and technical-tactical training can favor aspects related to the laterality of the motor movement of the shoulder, depending on the specialization required in basketball. This phenomenon causes the musculoskeletal system to adapt posturally from an early age, Guedes, João, (2014) Guedes, João, for example, for the realization of the dribbling technique in basketball.
In the case of indicator 3, related to the laterality of the waist, Betancourt et al., (2020) describe the importance it has for manual dominance and the preference for the turning side, which serves as a feint for passing the ball and deceiving the opponent in specialized technical-tactical actions of the sport. The present research evidences a low score of two average points, issued by the national specialists (More or less), while the international specialists grant a higher score of four points (Very Good), being significantly different in favor of the post-test (p=0.002), as there is a higher average range (Table 2: 16.90).
In the fourth indicator, related to the Dynamic Leg, the national specialists evidenced an average score of three points, while the international specialists evidenced a higher score of five points. Significant differences in favor of the post-test are shown here (p=0.000). The lower limbs from a technical-tactical point of view, in the case of basketball, have a lower relative technical-tactical importance compared to sports such as soccer. In part, the scores issued by the national specialists are lower by two points than those established in Chicaiza Jácome's (2021) research are . These data are very comprehensive from the point of view of the training priority of the laterality mentioned above. However, it is curious that international specialists give the highest score to the importance of the laterality of the dynamic leg in initiation basketball; perhaps this is justified given the importance of the directing foot in balance as a fundamental coordination capacity in basketball Álvarez et al., (2021); Mejía Pérez, (2021). In addition to having, this process a transcendental importance in the rest of the physical capacities.
On the other hand, the fifth indicator (Static Leg), the national specialists score it with an average of three points (Good) and the international specialists with four points (Very Good), which is significantly different in favor of the post-test (p=0.000), as well as the comparison of the dynamic leg indicator.
In the sixth indicator, related to the dynamic hand, the national specialists score it with an average of four points (Very Good) and the international specialists with an average of five points (Excellent). From this perspective, there are no significant differences (p=0.648) in this indicator. National and international specialists statistically agree on the importance of training the laterality of the Dynamic Hand in introductory basketball. This should be reflected in the priority of technical and technical-tactical training of the basketball player, from early ages, in terms of time dedicated to the training of the dominant and nondominant hand, as mentioned by Gimeno, 2020. Likewise, the seventh indicator, related to the Static Hand, the national specialists score it with an average of three points (Good) and the international specialists with an average of four points (Very Good); a significant difference prevails in this case in favor of the international specialists (p=0.001). In this case, the training of the non-dexterous hand is an essential technical-tactical requirement in basketball, given the possibility of widening the player's motor repertoire and, therefore, widening the possibilities of technical and technical-tactical success. Dribbling is included as a technical element of basketball, which must be performed with dexterity in both hands, as it is shown in the specialized literature and the one provided in de Lanuza Arús del Río, (2002).
The director and non-director hand are the two final indicators of analysis for the present research, which are directly related to indicators 6 and 7 respectively. In the directing and non-directing hand, both national and international specialists did not show notable differences in the average score (5 points and 4 points respectively), and significant differences were not significant for both cases (p=0.738; p=0.605 respectively) shown in table 2. As Lanuza Arús del Río, (2002) state, dominating the ball in basketball with both hands offers additional technical-tactical possibilities, which are the basis for learning ball-handling techniques, Grigoriev, (1989), such as dribbling. In this sense, both national and international specialists are clear that the upper limbs are essential in the learning of ball handling techniques, which should be reflected in the time dedicated to the training of technical elements such as dribbling that accompanies the teaching-learning process in introductory basketball (Table 3).
Table 2. - Mann-Whitney U test
Table 3.- Test statisticsa
a. Grouping variable: Groups.
b. Not corrected for ties.
Once the data resulting from the research have been analyzed, it is recommended to use the present analyses as a theoretical and methodological basis to justify specific work actions to train aspects related to laterality in the Ecuadorian training environment. From this point of view, emphasis is placed on the teaching-learning process of dribbling in introductory basketball, as it is deduced that laterality is of great importance in the development of sports technique. Dribbling is highlighted as the basis of ball handling, given the clear lateralization of the motor functions of the hands and the precision of the movement Timofeyev, (2018).
International specialists consider that most of the indicators analyzed have a greater importance in technical and technical-tactical training, including dribbling as part of initiation basketball. In this sense, it is recommended to carry out methodological work with national specialists in order to improve the understanding of the importance of laterality training in all its manifestations, specifically, aspects directly related to technical and technical-tactical training, including dribbling as an essential element of basketball.
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Conflict of interest:
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Juan Andrés Manangón Vinueza: Conception of the idea, literature search and review, instrument making, instrument application, compilation of information resulting from the instruments applied, statistic análisis, preparation of tables, graphs, and images, database preparation, general advice on the topic addressed, drafting of the original (first version), review and final version of the article, article correction, authorship coordinator, translation of terms or information obtained, review of the application of the applied bibliographic standard
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